From Surplus to Symbol: A Comprehensive Exploration of the Iconic Jeepney in the Philippines


The bustling streets of the Philippines are alive with a kaleidoscope of colors, sounds, and energy. At the heart of this vibrant chaos, one unique and unmistakable presence dominates the roads—the jeepney. Evolving from a war relic into a cultural icon, the jeepney has become an integral part of life in the country. The vehicle symbolises the resilience, adaptability, and the spirit of innovation of Filipinos. 

Join us as we delve into the rich history of the Filipino jeepney in this VivoPower Insight. We will trace the vehicle’s origins and development, as well as examine its enduring legacy. 

The Birth of the Jeepney 

The inception of the jeepney can be traced back to the aftermath of World War II. As the dust settled on the war-torn Philippines, the United States military left behind a fleet of surplus Willys and Ford jeeps. These sturdy vehicles, once integral to the war effort, found themselves repurposed in the hands of enterprising Filipinos. The transformation from military utility vehicles to civilian transport marked the birth of the jeepney. 

Faced with a lack of public transportation options, resourceful Filipinos began modifying and customizing the jeeps to accommodate more passengers. These modifications laid the foundation for the distinctive and colorful jeepneys that would later become synonymous with Philippine streets. 

The Jeepney Takes the Road 

With their unique blend of American military heritage and Filipino ingenuity, the jeepneys quickly gained popularity as a mode of public transportation. These vehicles began plying the streets, offering an affordable and accessible means of transportation for the masses. And because the jeepney could navigate both urban and rural terrain, it was quickly adopted across the archipelago. 

As demand for jeepneys grew, so did the need for standardisation and regulation. Government initiatives were introduced to ensure safety standards and regulate fares. The Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) oversaw the growth of jeepney fleets, enforced safety regulations, and established routes. 

Today, the jeepney has become an integral part of Filipinos’ way of life. Public utility jeepneys (PUJs) are the main mode of public transportation in the country, and millions of Filipinos rely on them for their daily commutes. In fact, a study by the University of the Philippines estimates that around 9 million people ride these vehicles in Metro Manila alone, and Metro Manila represents only around 15% of the country’s population. 

Becoming a Cultural Symbol 

The jeepney is not merely a mode of transportation; it is a canvas that reflects the soul of Filipino culture. It did not take long for locals to turn the public utility vehicles into mobile works of art. Artists started adorning jeepneys with vibrant paintings, intricate designs, and often humorous slogans, turning each jeepney into a moving masterpiece. 

This fusion of art and transportation not only transformed the physical appearance of the jeepney but also elevated its cultural significance. Designing the vehicles allowed Filipinos to showcase their creativity and expressiveness. This helped make the jeepney become a source of pride for the people of the Philippines. 

The Jeepneys in the New Era 

While the jeepney has undeniably become an iconic symbol of Filipino culture, it has not been immune to the challenges of the modern era. Economic pressures, environmental concerns, and changing transportation trends have prompted a reevaluation of the traditional jeepney model. 

With the Philippines prioritising cleaner and greener modes of transportation, the classic jeepney is seemingly being left behind. A vast majority of the vehicles in operation still use internal combustion engines (ICEs) and rely on fossil fuels. This makes them increasingly unsuitable for what the government sees as the future of public transportation. 

Jeepney Modernisation 

In 2017, the Department of Transportation (DOTr) issued the Public Utility Vehicle Modernisation Program (PUVMP). The policy aims to phase out all traditional jeepneys in favour of more sustainable and environmentally friendly versions. This means jeepneys must have either electric, Euro-4, LPG-powered, or hybrid to be allowed on roads. 

Despite its well-meaning intentions, the PUVMP has faced some backlash from various jeepney operators and drivers. At the top of their complaints is the high cost of brand-new modern jeepneys.  

Opposition to the PUVMP has not dampened the Philippine government’s will. The DOTr is committed to seeing the jeepney modernisation program through. They cite the numerous potential environmental and economic benefits of converting ICE jeepneys into electric or hybrid vehicles as motivation. 

Finding Solutions 

To help with jeepney modernisation, the Philippine government is offering subsidies to operators and drivers for each modern jeepney. The current subsidy is pegged at PHP 180,000 (USD 3,200) per unit. However, there are already plans to have Congress increase the offer to PHP 250,000 (USD 4,500). 

In addition, the government wants to transform the fragmented operations of the jeepneys from individualised operations by driver operators or individual operators to centralised operations managed by driver cooperatives or corporations. This requires operators to consolidate their individual franchises into a singular Fleet Management System. The Transportation Department believes consolidation will help improve jeepney operations and formalise employment for thousands of drivers

The Philippine government initially set 31 December 2023 as the hard deadline to achieve 100% consolidation. However, the Marcos administration later granted a request by the Transportation Department to move the deadline to 30 April 2024. Jeepney associations who failed to consolidate will have their franchises revoked.

Future-Proofing the Filipinos’ Way of Life 

From its humble beginnings as a surplus military vehicle, the jeepney has become a symbol of pride for the Philippines. Its origin showcases the ingenuity of Filipinos to find new uses for things that would have been discarded otherwise. Who else can transform a vehicle of war into a mobile work of art? 

Beyond its cultural impact, the jeepney also serves as a crucial part of Filipinos’ livelihood. Millions of commuters ride these vehicles every day to go to school or work. It offers many cash-strapped Filipinos an affordable and convenient way to travel in the country. 

However, as the Philippines shifts to a more sustainable way of life, the need to modernise the jeepney becomes apparent. The traditional model’s reliance on internal combustion engines goes directly against the principles of decarbonisation. Unless it can adapt to a cleaner and greener world, then it will unfortunately be left out. 


There is still a way to save the beloved jeepney. Modernising the jeepney does not mean abandoning its classic look.  

Through VivoPower’s subsidiary, Tembo e-LV, jeepney makers can use electric utility vehicle (EUV) conversion kits to power e-jeepneys, thus creating a cleaner and greener world for Filipinos. 

The journey of the Filipino jeepney is therefore far from over. By transforming the traditional vehicles into battery electric, we can future-proof the iconic jeepney for the benefit of generations to come. 

For more news & insights, stay tuned to the VivoPower website. 

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